Cost Effective Ball Milling Machine for Producing Nanopowder

Cost Effective Ball Milling Machine for Producing Nanopowder

Abstract –

Research work related to metallurgy and mechanical department deals with the study of various ferrous and nonferrous materials. Usually properties of these materials enhance at microscopic level. These changes in properties have numerous applications. But in order to carry

out research activities there must be ample supply of Nanopowder at low cost. Unfortunately this is not the case. The Nanopowder now obtained is produced through high energy planetary ball milling machine. The cost of this machine is high. Also the amount of powder produced is more.

Our effort in this project is to minimize the production cost of Nanopowder by providing alternate machine. The major advantages of this machine include lower floor space, low initial cost. Also the quantity of nano powder required for testing is usually less. So the above mentioned machine can be used effectively.

INTRODUCTION

Nanotechnology is the science that deals with matter at the scale of 1 billionth of a meter (i.e., 10−9 m=1nm), and is also the study of manipulating matter at the atomic and Molecular scale. A nanoparticle is the most fundamental component in the fabrication of a nanostructure, and is far smaller than the world of everyday objects that are described by Newton’s laws of motion, but bigger than an atom or a simple molecule that are governed by quantum mechanics. In general, the size of a nanoparticle spans the range between 1 and 100 nm.

There are several Synthesis methods for creating nanoparticles like, Physical vapor deposition, Chemical vapor deposition, Sol-gel Method, RF Plasma Method, Pulsed Laser Method, Thermolysis and Solution Combustion Method. But these methods are Very costly, so comparatively cheaper method has to be developed. Synthesis of nanomaterials by a simple, low cost and in high yield has been a great challenge since the very early development of nanoscience. Various different processes have been developed for the commercial production of nanomaterials. Among all top down approaches, high energy ball milling, has been widely exploited for the synthesis of

various nanomaterials.

Various types of high-energy milling equipment are used to produce nanopowder. They differ in their capacity, efficiency of milling and additional arrangements for cooling, heating, etc. 1. SPEX shaker mills 2. Planetary ball mills 3. Attritor mills. These methods although cheaper than the chemical method but still are very high priced. Hence in this project we have developed a machine which will

manufacture nanopowder cheaper than the above mentioned methods. A principle of high-energy ball milling is used in order to produce nanopowder. Our project is beneficial to most of the educational institutions to carry out research work related to nanotechnology. It is a simple process and does not include working with hazardous chemicals.

CONSTRUCTION

For our experiment, we used EN8 (Carbon 0.36-0.44%, Silicon 0.10-0.40%, Manganese 0.60-1.00%, Sulphur 0.050 Max, Phosphorus 0.050%) as our grinding media and grinding jar. For the jar, inner diameter of 100 mm and thickness of 10 mm is chosen as our design. The jar has approximately 8.1627×10-4 m 3 of volume and it can withstand 4.4021×10-4m 3 of grinding media. The voil (grinding jar) cap has an arrangement that clamps itself with voil. The voil cap has an opening for the shaft. The shaft of diameter 25.4 mm is inserted through this opening. The blades are attached to the shaft with the help of grab screw. For grinding media, 5mm and 10mm diameter of stainless steel balls are used. For our shafts, we used the mild steel provided in store and went to labs for machining purpose.

Cost Effective Ball Milling Machine for Producing Nanopowder
Cost Effective Ball Milling Machine for Producing Nanopowder

WORKING

The three phase A.C supply is given to the motor. The motor has power of 1 Hp. The motor is clamped vertically to the frame using bolts. The shaft of motor has two pulleys. viz, four speed pulley and single speed pulley. The power is transmitted from four speeds from four speed pulley to the main shaft. The main shaft which has two universal joints is fixed with the help of bearings. The maximum speed achieved in this case is 690 rpm. This shaft has four blades attached to its end using grab screw. The shaft is then placed inside the voil. Suitable amount of ball bearings are placed inside the voil. During the actual operation, due to high speed ball milling principle actual powder is formed.

Suitable time gaps are provided so that the powder does not adhere to the face of voil.

This is intermittent process and takes about 3-4 hours as per the volume of solid to be powdered. The voil has a separate clamping mechanism. The voil is held in the voil handle. The voil is handle is designed for easy removal of voil whenever required. The voil handle moves to and fro by rack and pinion mechanism. This mechanism is attached to the separate frame which is welded to base. The rack slides up and down through a plate which is attached to the speed reduction gearbox shaft. The power input from the motor is given to the speed reduction gearbox through pulley.


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