It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur.
According to Theo Haimann, “Controlling is the process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation”. According to Koontz & O’Donell “Controlling is the measurement & correction of performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtain them as being
Therefore controlling has following steps:
(i) Establishment of standard performance.
(ii) Measurement of actual performance.
(iii) Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any.
(iv) Corrective action.
Read more : Controlling -Definition, Meaning , Importance
ROLES OF MANAGER
Henry Mintzberg identified ten different roles, separated into three categories. The categories he defined are as follows
a) Interpersonal Roles
The ones that, like the name suggests, involve people and other ceremonial duties. It can be further classified as follows
• Leader – Responsible for staffing, training, and associated duties.
• Figurehead – The symbolic head of the organization.
• Liaison – Maintains the communication between all contacts and informers that compose the organizational network.
b) Informational Roles
Related to collecting, receiving, and disseminating information.
• Monitor – Personally seek and receive information, to be able to understand the organization.
• Disseminator – Transmits all import information received from outsiders to the members of the organization.
• Spokesperson – On the contrary to the above role, here the manager transmits the organization’s plans, policies and actions to outsiders.
c) Decision Roles
Roles that revolve around making choices.
• Entrepreneur – Seeks opportunities. Basically they search for change, respond to it, and exploit it.
• Negotiator – Represents the organization at major negotiations.
• Resource Allocator – Makes or approves all significant decisions related to the allocation of resources.
• Disturbance Handler – Responsible for corrective action when the organization faces disturbances.